Sex and gender: modifiers of health, disease, and medicine

The Lancet, Volume 396, Issue 10250, 22–28 August 2020, Pages 565-582
Mauvais-Jarvis, F., et al

Clinicians can encounter sex and gender disparities in diagnostic and therapeutic responses. These disparities are noted in epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, disease progression, and response to treatment. This Review discusses the fundamental influences of sex and gender as modifiers of the major causes of death and morbidity. We articulate how the genetic, epigenetic, and hormonal influences of biological sex influence physiology and disease, and how the social constructs of gender affect the behaviour of the community, clinicians, and patients in the health-care system and interact with pathobiology. We aim to guide clinicians and researchers to consider sex and gender in their approach to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases as a necessary and fundamental step towards precision medicine, which will benefit men’s and women’s health.

 

Women on average are physiologically sexually aroused to both male and female sexual stimuli

University of Essex, 05 November 2015

When it comes to what turns them on, women are either bisexual or gay, but never straight, according to a new study by the University of Essex.

Whereas previous research has shown that women generally are sexually aroused by both men and women to varying degrees, it overlooked the differences between women who are straight or gay.

  • Read more of press release from University of Essex here
  • View article abstract for ‘Sexual Arousal and Masculinity-Femininity of Women’ here