Sex and gender: modifiers of health, disease, and medicine

The Lancet, Volume 396, Issue 10250, 22–28 August 2020, Pages 565-582
Mauvais-Jarvis, F., et al

Clinicians can encounter sex and gender disparities in diagnostic and therapeutic responses. These disparities are noted in epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, disease progression, and response to treatment. This Review discusses the fundamental influences of sex and gender as modifiers of the major causes of death and morbidity. We articulate how the genetic, epigenetic, and hormonal influences of biological sex influence physiology and disease, and how the social constructs of gender affect the behaviour of the community, clinicians, and patients in the health-care system and interact with pathobiology. We aim to guide clinicians and researchers to consider sex and gender in their approach to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases as a necessary and fundamental step towards precision medicine, which will benefit men’s and women’s health.

 

Intersex people and COVID-19

Intersex Human Rights Australia, 12 April 2020

COVID-19 can infect any individual, irrespective of age or health but its impact exacerbates existing inequalities. All populations that suffer health inequalities are disproportionately affected, and people with intersex variations are no exception.

Current health is determined to some extent by biological factors.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), HIV & hepatitis C: What you need to know

CATIE (Canada), 17 March 2020

  • An HIV-positive person on effective treatment is not expected to be at higher risk of becoming seriously ill with COVID-19
  • A person with untreated HIV or a low CD4+ cell count may be at higher risk of becoming seriously ill with COVID-19
  • People with HIV or hepatitis C are more likely to have other conditions that carry a greater risk of becoming seriously ill with COVID-19

 

 

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health survey shows mixed outcomes

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 11/12/2019

A new report shows mixed health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with a reduction in smoking and improvements in how people feel about their health, but an increased proportion of people with chronic conditions causing significant health problems.

The 2018-19 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey released today by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) examines long-term health conditions, risk factors, and social and emotional well-being indicators. The survey included Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from all states and territories and included people in both non-remote and remote areas.

Contents include:

Overview of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health status, 2017

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet, Last updated: 15 June 2018

The Overview of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health status  aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the most recent indicators of the health and current health status of Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

The initial sections of the Overview provide information about the context of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health, population, and various measures of population health status. The remaining sections are about selected health conditions and risk and protective factors that contribute to the overall health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. These sections comprise an introduction and evidence of the extent of the condition or risk/protective factor.

The annual Overview is a resource relevant for workers, students and others who need to access up-to-date information about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health.

Accompanying the Overview is a set of PowerPoint slides designed to help lecturers and others provide up-to-date information.

Australia’s health 2018 (Report)

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare,  Release Date: 

 

Australia’s Health 2018 is the AIHW’s 16th biennial report on the health of Australians. It examines a wide range of contemporary topics in a series of analytical feature articles and short statistical snapshots.

The report also summarises the performance of the health system against an agreed set of indicators.

Australia’s health 2018: in brief is a companion report to Australia’s health 2018.

Table of contents:

Whole report:

PDF Report (17.3Mb)

Australia’s health 2018 in brief:

Companion ‘in brief’ booklet presents highlights in a compact easy-to-use format.