Sex and gender: modifiers of health, disease, and medicine

The Lancet, Volume 396, Issue 10250, 22–28 August 2020, Pages 565-582
Mauvais-Jarvis, F., et al

Clinicians can encounter sex and gender disparities in diagnostic and therapeutic responses. These disparities are noted in epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, disease progression, and response to treatment. This Review discusses the fundamental influences of sex and gender as modifiers of the major causes of death and morbidity. We articulate how the genetic, epigenetic, and hormonal influences of biological sex influence physiology and disease, and how the social constructs of gender affect the behaviour of the community, clinicians, and patients in the health-care system and interact with pathobiology. We aim to guide clinicians and researchers to consider sex and gender in their approach to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases as a necessary and fundamental step towards precision medicine, which will benefit men’s and women’s health.

 

Managing Chronic Hepatitis B – Advice for GPs (SHINE SA video)

SHINE SA, July 2017

Today, July 28th, is World Hepatitis Day.

There are no ‘healthy carriers’ of hepatitis B!

SA Health & SHINE SA are promoting a 6-minute video providing advice for general practitioners in diagnosing, managing and contact tracing patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), to assist in preventing serious liver disease.

It is now known that people who were previously considered to have ‘unresolved hepatitis B virus carrier state’ in fact have CHB. CHB requires lifelong recall and monitoring for disease progression, even when asymptomatic. It is estimated that South Australia has 14,400 people with CHB, 6,600 (46%) who are undiagnosed.  Current clinical guidelines recommend that patients with CHB should be monitored at least annually by their GP for disease progression and suitability for anti-viral treatment.

This video provides clinical advice from the Royal Adelaide Hospital, Viral Hepatitis Centre Co-Directors Dr Edmund Tse (Head of Hepatology) and Dr David Shaw (Head of Infectious Diseases), Margery Milner (Viral Hepatitis CPC) and Dr Sam Elliott, a GP and Hepatitis B s100 Community Prescriber.

Hormonal contraceptive methods for women at high risk of HIV and living with HIV

2014 Guidance statement

WHO, July 2014

The World Health Organization is issuing its contraceptive eligibility guidance for women at high risk of HIV and women living with HIV, in advance of the entire guideline revision. It is anticipated that the revised fifth edition of the MEC will be completed in 2015.

Download the guidelines here