Report: Gay and Transgender Prejudice Killings in NSW in the Late 20th Century

ACON, May 2018

Australia has a long history of violence towards people from sexual and gender minorities, stretching from colonisation to the present day. This Report looks at what has been a tragic and shameful episode in Sydney’s history.

ACON, in conjunction with key partners, has undertaken a review of the initial list of 88
homicide cases that occurred during the period t from the 1970s through to the 1990s.

The key findings from this review include:

1. Homicides occurred in three main spaces, with majority of victims being killed in their own homes, followed by beats, and other locations which mostly include gay and other social spaces.

2. In general, there was little or no pre-existing relationship between assailants and their victims.

3. Where killings happened in the victim’s house, the victim was more likely to be known to the assailant, albeit in a minor way, whereas there was generally no existing relationship between the victim and assailant where the killing occurred at the beat or gay social spaces.

4. Generally, spaces where people were murdered were private, secluded or isolated, which meant the assailant was less likely to be interrupted, and this impacted the victim’s ability to call out for help.

5. The scenarios in all the spaces were commonly sexualised, or where people could be disinhibited by the consumption of alcohol and other drugs.

6. Assailants employed a variety of killing methods and, in general, inflicted several forms of violence upon their victims. The type of attack and the weapons used varied according to the location where the killings was carried out, whether in the victim’s home, at a beat or in gay social areas.

7. There is evidence of serial killings by gangs of young men as well as lone assailants.

8. From available information, it appears groups of assailants tended to kill their victims at beats or social spaces whereas individual assailants killed their victims in private residences.

9. There is information to indicate homophobia was likely involved in approximately 50% of listed cases; however the two cases involving transgender women do not appear to have been motivated by transphobia.

10. Of the initial 88 cases on the original list, approximately 30 remain unsolved.

Pregnant women are at increased risk of domestic violence in all cultural groups

The Conversation, April 26, 2018 6.00pm AEST

Domestic violence occurs across all age groups and life stages. Rather than reducing during pregnancy, expecting a child is a key risk factor for domestic violence beginning or escalating.

Our research, published today in the journal BMJ Open, found that 4.3% of pregnant women due to give birth in Western Sydney disclosed domestic violence when asked about it by a midwife at her first hospital visit. The study examined more than 33,000 ethnically diverse women who gave birth between 2006 and 2016, and found that these disclosures spanned all cultural groups.

Expanded HIV PrEP implementation in communities in NSW (EPIC-NSW): design of an open label, single arm implementation trial

BMC Public Health 
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-5018-9

 Published: 2 February 2018

Abstract:

Background

The New South Wales (NSW) HIV Strategy 2016–2020 aims for the virtual elimination of HIV transmission in NSW, Australia, by 2020. Despite high and increasing levels of HIV testing and treatment since 2012, the annual number of HIV diagnoses in NSW has remained generally unchanged. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective in preventing HIV infection among gay and bisexual men (GBM) when taken appropriately. However, there have been no population-level studies that evaluate the impact of rapid PrEP scale-up in high-risk GBM. Expanded PrEP Implementation in Communities in NSW (EPIC-NSW) is a population-level evaluation of the rapid, targeted roll-out of PrEP to high-risk individuals.

Methods

EPIC-NSW, is an open-label, single-arm, multi-centre prospective observational study of PrEP implementation and impact. Over 20 public and private clinics across urban and regional areas in NSW have participated in the rapid roll-out of PrEP, supported by strong community mobilization and PrEP promotion. The study began on 1 March 2016, aiming to enroll at least 3700 HIV negative people at high risk of HIV. This estimate took into consideration criteria for PrEP prescription in people at high risk for acquiring HIV as defined in the NSW PrEP guidelines. Study participants receive once daily co-formulated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) and are followed for up to 24 months. Follow-up includes: testing for HIV at 1 month, HIV and other sexually transmissible infections three-monthly, HCV annually and monitoring of renal function six-monthly. Optional online behavioural surveys are conducted quarterly. The co-primary endpoints are (i) HIV diagnoses and incidence in the cohort and (ii) HIV diagnoses in NSW.

Discussion

EPIC-NSW is a population-based PrEP implementation trial which targets the entire estimated population of GBM at high risk for HIV infection in NSW. It will provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the population impact of PrEP on a concentrated HIV epidemic.

Hepatitis B testing infographic now available

Hepatitis NSW, October 2017

With the increasing visibility of hep B, Hepatitis NSW felt there was a need to make information about hep B testing clearer. It can be a complex subject to grapple with and there’s lots of misinformation and confusion out there.

This hep B testing infographic aims to give both doctors and patients a clearer understanding of what tests to do as well as what the test results mean. On one side, we have an explanation of what the tests results mean which a doctor can use to explain a person’s results. On the other side, we have the reminder for the doctor to test the 3 key hep B tests. It’s really important to get all three done at once.

The aim is for people to take this infographic with them when they go and see their doctor about hep B testing – whether that’s checking their immunity, seeing if they’ve ever been exposed, or seeing if they have a hep B infection.

People can also call the Hepatitis SA Infoline on 1800 437 222 for further information.

  • Download infographic in English, Korean or Mandarin here 

Hepatitis A in MSM

SA Health / SHINE SA, October 2017

An increase in the number of notifications of hepatitis A has been reported in New South Wales amongst men who have sex with men (MSM). It is suspected that these infections are associated with a recent outbreak overseas amongst MSM in Europe and the Americas.

Key prevention messages:

  • Vaccination is the most effective form of prevention against hepatitis A infection. To receive the vaccine, contact your health care provider to arrange an appointment.
  • Follow good personal hygiene practices, especially thorough hand washing and safe sexual practices.
  • People with hepatitis A are excluded from work for 7 days after the onset of jaundice (if present) or 2 weeks from the onset of illness.

A factsheet and 2 videos of different lengths have been developed.

Dr Alison Ward, Senior Consultant Sexual Health Physician, Head of Unit, STD Services, Clinic 275 (RAH), discusses the importance of vaccination against Hepatitis A for men who have sex with men (MSM) (3:08 Minutes)

Dr Alison Ward, Senior Consultant Sexual Health Physician, Head of Unit, STD Services, Clinic 275 (RAH), discusses the importance of vaccination against Hepatitis A for men who have sex with men (MSM) (47 seconds)

New periodic survey on sexual health among young heterosexual people

Centre for Social Research in Health, UNSW, 2017

Between December 2015 and March 2016, the ‘It’s Your Love Life’ periodic survey recruited 2,120 heterosexually-identified young people aged 15–29 years and living in New South Wales (NSW). The data collected through the survey contributes new knowledge on the attitudes and practices of heterosexual young people and their exposure to sexual health promotion initiatives.

Results indicate that substantial effort is required to support heterosexual young people in ensuring their sexual health.

Contents include:

  • Knowledge of sexually transmissible infections (STIs)
  • Perceived severity of STIs
  • Perceived risk of contracting an STI
  • Condom use-related views
  • Carrying condoms while being on a date
  • Sexual intercourse with and without condoms
  • Contraception
  • STI testing-related views
  • Testing for STIs and/or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • Exposure to messages promoting condom use and testing for STIs
  • Familiarity and engagement with sexual health promotion resources, activities and services
  • Sexual health education in secondary schools

IYLL is an online cross-sectional survey that will be repeated annually. A first round of data collection was completed between December 2015 and March 2016