Australian Burden of Disease Study: Illicit Drug Use, Intimate Partner Violence, Unsafe Sex

 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Last updated: 

Burden of disease is a measure of the years of healthy life lost from living with, or dying from disease and injury. A portion of this burden is preventable, being due to modifiable risk factors. This report provides information on the deaths and burden of disease due to risk factors included in the Australian Burden of Disease Study 2015. 

New analyses of the key drivers of change over time in the burden of disease due to selected risk factors have recently been added to these data visualisations (August 2020).

The following excerpts may be of interest:

Or you can see all the data here

 

 

Psychosocial mediators of perceived stigma and suicidal ideation among transgender women

Kota, K.K., Salazar, L.F., Culbreth, R.E. et al. Psychosocial mediators of perceived stigma and suicidal ideation among transgender women. BMC Public Health 20125 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-8177-z

Abstract

Background

Transgender women (TGW) in the U.S. experience high rates of stigma, depression, and elevated rates of suicide. This study examined correlates of suicidal ideation and estimated the conditional indirect effects of perceived stigma and psychosocial mediators on suicidal ideation.

Methods

Using a cross-sectional study design, TGW (N = 92) were recruited through snowball sampling in Atlanta, Georgia. Structured interviews were conducted. Suicidal ideation was assessed by combining two variables that measured suicidal thoughts. Logistic regression models were performed to identify the potential risk and protective factors for suicidal ideation. We examined hypothesized psychosocial factors, including anxiety, depression, psychosocial impact of gender minority status, and substance use behaviors as potential mediators for the relationship between perceived stigma and suicidal ideation. All models were controlled for age, race, education, and homelessness.

Results

Suicidal ideation was reported by 33% (N = 30) of the study participants. In multivariable analysis, suicidal ideation was associated with sexual abuse (AOR = 3.17, 95% CI = 1.10–9.30), anxiety (AOR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.10–2.73), family verbal abuse (AOR = 2.99, 95% CI = 1.10–8.40), stranger verbal abuse (AOR = 3.21, 95% CI = 1.02–10.08), and psychosocial impact of gender minority status (AOR = 3.42, 95% CI = 1.81–6.46). Partner support was found to be the protective factor for suicidal ideation (AOR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.13–0.90). In the mediation analysis, the psychosocial impact of gender minority status mediated the relationship between perceived stigma and suicidal ideation. The estimated conditional indirect effect was 0.46, (95% CI = 0.12–1.11).

Conclusion

Interventions that aim to reduce suicidal behaviors among TGW should address stigma, psychosocial imfamilpact of gender minority status, and different forms of violence and abuse.

Poorer outcomes for babies born to teen mums – often linked to low socioeconomic status

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare,  02 May 2018

Babies of teenage mothers often experience poorer health outcomes than babies born to women just a few years older, according to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare’s (AIHW) first report on this subject.

The report, Teenage mothers in Australia 2015, shows that about 8,200 teenage mothers gave birth to 8,300 babies (3% of all babies) in 2015, down from 11,800 teenage mothers giving birth a decade earlier. Almost three-quarters of teenage mothers were aged 18 or 19.

One in 4 (24%) of all teenage mothers were Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander. Indigenous teenage mothers had higher levels of antenatal risk factors and poorer baby outcomes than non-Indigenous teenage mothers in terms of pre-term birth
and low birthweight.

 

MSM in London diagnosed with early syphilis are a priority group for PrEP

nam/aidsmap, 16 October 2017

Gay and other men who have sex with men (MSM) recently diagnosed with early syphilis are a priority group for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), results of a study published in Sexually Transmitted Infections suggest.

Over two years of follow-up, 11% of men diagnosed with early syphilis subsequently became infected with HIV. Incidence of rectal sexually transmitted infections and syphilis re-infection was also high.

“Our study highlights early syphilis as a risk factor for HIV acquisition in MSM,” write the investigators. “Intensive risk reduction and PrEP would be beneficial for HIV-negative MSM with early syphilis by reducing their risk of HIV acquisition.”

What is going on in gay men’s lives when they acquire HIV?

nam/aidsmap, Published: 08 September 2017

Gay men in England who have recently become HIV positive describe a complex web of factors which may have contributed to their infection, according to a qualitative study recently published in BMJ Open.

“Individuals who experienced multiple stressors, gradually over the life course or more suddenly, were especially vulnerable to HIV and being drawn into sexual risk situations, while the social environment created a context that enabled risk of HIV infection,” the researchers write. Individual and interpersonal factors frequently combined with community or structural factors, such as the widespread use of dating apps, chemsex and HIV treatment, as well as changing perceptions of the seriousness of an HIV infection.

London data shows that hepatitis C is passed on during [sexual activity]

aidsmap/nam, 10 April 2017

Around one in five HIV-positive gay men who recently acquired hepatitis C report anal sex without a condom as the only behaviour that could explain their infection. At the same time, a third of people acquiring hepatitis C were gay men who did not have HIV, clinicians from the Mortimer Market Centre in London told the British HIV Association conference in Liverpool last week.

The data suggest that prevention messages around sexually transmitted hepatitis C need to change.

Read more here