New evidence supports HIV screening in young adulthood

Science Daily, December 19, 2017

A new study suggests that the most beneficial age for a one-time screening HIV test of the general population would be age 25.

The report — led by researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital  working with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Massachusetts Department of Public Health — will be published in the Journal of Adolescent Health and has been issued online.

Withdrawing Depo-Provera contraceptives would result in more lives lost than HIV infections prevented

aidsmap / nam,  11 January 2018

Even if Depo-Provera and other contraceptive injections raise the risk of HIV infection, withdrawing them from use in African countries would greatly increase maternal mortality, a modelling study has shown. The loss of life due to pregnancy complications and unsafe abortions would far outweigh the number of HIV infections prevented, according to the study published in the December issue of Global Health: Science and Practice.

HIV life expectancy ‘near normal’ thanks to new drugs

BBC news, 11 May 2017

Young people on the latest HIV drugs now have near-normal life expectancy because of improvements in treatments, a new study in The Lancet suggests.

Twenty-year-olds who started antiretroviral therapy in 2010 are projected to live 10 years longer than those first using it in 1996, it found.

Doctors say that starting treatment early is crucial to achieve a long and healthy life.

Patients with Severe Mental Illnesses Slip Between Cracks in HIV Testing

People with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and major depression with psychosis may be up to 15 more likely than the general population to be HIV positive, but are only marginally more likely to be tested for the virus, according to a study headed by UC San Francisco.
Read more here 

Closing the Gap: Six of seven targets ‘not on track’, life expectancy gap unchanged

The Age, February 14th, 2017

Australia is not on track to close the life expectancy gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, with the divide widening and deaths increasing when it comes to cancer, the ninth annual Closing the Gap report has found.

 

Impact of Cigarette Smoking and Smoking Cessation on Life Expectancy Among People With HIV

J Infect Dis. (2016) 214 (11):1672-1681.doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiw430

Abstract

Background. In the United States, >40% of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) smoke cigarettes.

Methods. We used a computer simulation of HIV disease and treatment to project the life expectancy of HIV-infected persons, based on smoking status. We used age- and sex-specific data on mortality, stratified by smoking status. The ratio of the non-AIDS-related mortality risk for current smokers versus that for never smokers was 2.8, and the ratio for former smokers versus never smokers was 1.0–1.8, depending on cessation age. Projected survival was based on smoking status, sex, and initial age. We also estimated the total potential life-years gained if a proportion of the approximately 248 000 HIV-infected US smokers quit smoking.

Results. Men and women entering HIV care at age 40 years (mean CD4+T-cell count, 360 cells/µL) who continued to smoke lost 6.7 years and 6.3 years of life expectancy, respectively, compared with never smokers; those who quit smoking upon entering care regained 5.7 years and 4.6 years, respectively. Factors associated with greater benefits from smoking cessation included younger age, higher initial CD4+ T-cell count, and complete adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Smoking cessation by 10%–25% of HIV-infected smokers could save approximately 106 000–265 000 years of life.

Conclusions. HIV-infected US smokers aged 40 years lose >6 years of life expectancy from smoking, possibly outweighing the loss from HIV infection itself. Smoking cessation should become a priority in HIV treatment programs.

Full text (open access) here