HIV & the Law: updated content from ASHM

Australasian Society for HIV, Viral Hepatitis and Sexual Health Medicine, 2019

The NEW Guide to Australian HIV Laws and Policies for Healthcare Professionals includes two new sections on Mandatory Testing for HIV and My Health Record.

This resource aims to provide health care workers with information on legal and ethical responsibilities under various laws and regulations related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It does not contain legal advice. Those seeking advice on individual cases should contact their health department, solicitor or their medical defence organisation as appropriate.

In the interests of brevity, laws have been summarised and re-written specifically as they relate to HIV. In many instances key legislation is more broadly targeted at a range of infectious diseases (with definitions varying by state).

All efforts have been made to ensure the content is current at time of publication.

New report: Surveillance of STIs and Blood-Borne Viruses in South Australia, 2018

Communicable Disease Control Branch, SA Health, July 2019

In 2018, there were 8,556 new notifications of STI and BBV in South Australia. This represents a 3% increase in the number of new notifications compared to notifications received in 2017.

In 2018, there were 6,256 notifications of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) making this the most commonly notified STI in South Australia. The demographics of people diagnosed with chlamydia have remained relatively stable over the past five
years.

There were no notifications of donovanosis in 2018.

There were 1,288 notifications of gonorrhoea in 2018. The notification rate of gonorrhoea increased from 45 per 100,000 population in 2014 to 74 per 100,000 population in 2017 and 2018. The rate in the Aboriginal population was 813 per 100,000 population in 2018 compared to 55 per 100,000 population in the non-Indigenous population.

There were 203 notifications of infectious syphilis in 2018, the highest number of annual notifications in the past 10 years. The notification rate of infectious syphilis in 2018 was 11.7 per 100,000 population, more than double the rate in 2016 of 5.2 per 100,000 population. In 2018, 88% of notifications were in males, the majority being among men who have sex with men (MSM) (75%). Infectious syphilis remains high in the Aboriginal population. There were no notifications of congenital syphilis in 2018.

There were 39 new diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in 2018. Thirty-two of the 39 notifications were in males (82%). In 2018, 63% of male cases reported male-to-male sex. Six females acquired their infection overseas and one in South Australia.

There were four notifications of newly acquired hepatitis B infection in 2018, below the five year average (2013-2017) of eight cases per year. There were no notifications in the Aboriginal population. There were 254 notifications of unspecified hepatitis B infection reported in 2018, a decrease compared to the five year average (2013-2017) of 325 cases per year. The notification rate has declined in the Aboriginal population over the past five years.

There were 41 notifications of newly acquired hepatitis C in 2018. Sixty-one per cent of cases were males, and 66% were aged 30 years and over. The notification rate of unspecified hepatitis C infection was 22.2 per 100,000 population in 2018, with a
total of 385 notifications in 2018 compared to 465 in 2017.

There were five new diagnoses of hepatitis D infection in 2018, below the five year average (2013-2017) of 9.8 cases per year.

 

80% of new HIV cases transmitted by undiagnosed or untreated people

Healio, March 18, 2019

In 2016, more than 80% of new HIV infections in the United States were transmitted by individuals who either did not know they were infected with HIV or had been diagnosed but were not receiving care, according to data released on the first day of the National HIV Prevention Conference in Atlanta.

“No‐one’s driving this bus” – qualitative analysis of PrEP health promotion for Aboriginal gay and bisexual men

“No‐one’s driving this bus” – qualitative analysis of PrEP health promotion for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander gay and bisexual men

Aust NZ J Public Health,  2019; 43:18-23; doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12852
Objective: HIV prevention tools such as pre‐exposure prophylaxis require equitable access and uptake to protect all at‐risk populations. This project assessed the perceived barriers to accessible HIV prevention for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander gay and bisexual men (GBM) and evaluated the presence of health promotion for pre‐exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for this population from the perspective of service providers.

Methods: Eighteen semi‐structured interviews with healthcare providers, researchers and AIDS Council employees were qualitatively analysed for themes and concepts related to PrEP‐specific health promotion.

Results: Respondents noted AIDS Councils and affiliated sexual health clinics had been instrumental in promoting PrEP to at‐risk GBM. However, many Aboriginal gay and bisexual men who are not well connected with these communities and services may not have been exposed to this health promotion and therefore have not accessed PrEP effectively.

Conclusions: Aboriginal community and gay community controlled health organisations need to collaborate to ensure they deliver effective and tailored health promotion to Aboriginal communities.

Implications for public health: The rising HIV notification rates in Aboriginal Australians is an example of the health gap experienced by First Nation people. Effective HIV prevention is required to ensure this gap does not widen further, and that Australia meets its goal of preventing all new HIV infections. However, these efforts will be hampered by ineffective health promotion of HIV prevention tools, such as PrEP, for Aboriginal Australians.

Surveillance of sexually transmitted infections and blood-borne viruses in South Australia, 2017

Communicable Disease Control Branch, SA Health, 2018

In 2017, there were 8,181 new notifications of STIs and BBVs in South Australia. This figure represents a 7% increase in the number of new notifications compared to notifications received in 2016, and a 14% increase compared to the five year average (2012-2016).

In 2017, there were 5,910 notifications of genital chlamydia making this the most commonly notified STI in South Australia.  The notification rate of chlamydia in 2017 was 343 per 100,000 population, and has been stable over the past five years.

There were no notifications of donovanosis in 2017.

There were 1,271 notifications of gonorrhoea in 2017. The notification rate of gonorrhoea increased from 45 per 100,000 population in 2014 to 74 per 100,000 population in 2017.

There were 158 notifications of infectious syphilis in 2017, the highest number of annual notifications in the past 10 years.

There were 60 new diagnoses of HIV infection in 2017. The notification rate of newly diagnosed HIV infection in 2017 was 3.5 per 100,000 population, above that in 2016 of 3.1 per 100,000 population. The notification rate in the Aboriginal population rose to 9.6 per 100,000 in 2017, up from 4.8 per 100,000 in 2016.

There were 11 notifications of newly acquired hepatitis B infection in 2017, above the five year average (2012-2016) of nine cases per year. There were 272 notifications of unspecified hepatitis B virus infection reported in 2017. The notification rate has declined in the Aboriginal population over the past five years.

There were 32 notifications of newly acquired hepatitis C in 2017. The majority of cases were males (75%). The notification rate of unspecified hepatitis C infection was 23 per 100,000 population in 2017.

There were 10 new diagnoses of hepatitis D infection in 2017, which is consistent with the five year average of 10 notifications per year.

 

 

 

 

Priorities for preventing a concentrated HIV epidemic among Aboriginal Australians

Priorities for preventing a concentrated HIV epidemic among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians

James S Ward, Karen Hawke and Rebecca J Guy
Med J Aust 2018; 209 (1): 56. || doi: 10.5694/mja17.01071
Published online: 2 July 2018
Greater efforts are required to prevent human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) escalating among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Recently released national data highlight a 33% increase in new HIV diagnosis rates among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, from 4.8 per 100 000 population in 2012 to 6.4 per 100 000 population in 2016. In the same period, newly diagnosed HIV rates among Australian-born non-Indigenous people decreased by 22% (from 3.7 per 100 000 population in 2012 to 2.9 per 100 000 population in 2016).