Clinical Characteristics and Results of Semen Tests Among Men With Coronavirus Disease

Li D, Jin M, Bao P, Zhao W, Zhang S. Clinical Characteristics and Results of Semen Tests Among Men With Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(5):e208292. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.8292

Research Letter

Infectious Diseases

May 7, 2020

Discussion

In this cohort study, we found that SARS-CoV-2 can be present in the semen of patients with COVID-19, and SARS-CoV-2 may still be detected in the semen of recovering patients. Owing to the imperfect blood-testes/deferens/epididymis barriers, SARS-CoV-2 might be seeded to the male reproductive tract, especially in the presence of systemic local inflammation. Even if the virus cannot replicate in the male reproductive system, it may persist, possibly resulting from the privileged immunity of testes. So far, researchers have found 27 viruses associated with viremia in human semen. But the presence of viruses in semen may be more common than currently understood, and traditional non–sexually transmitted viruses should not be assumed to be totally absent in genital secretions.5,6 Studies on viral detection and semen persistence are beneficial to clinical practice and public health, especially concerning viruses that could cause high mortality or morbidity, such as SARS-CoV-2.

This study is limited by the small sample size and the short subsequent follow-up. Therefore, further studies are required with respect to the detailed information about virus shedding, survival time, and concentration in semen.

If it could be proved that SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted sexually in future studies, sexual transmission might be a critical part of the prevention of transmission, especially considering the fact that SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the semen of recovering patients.

Position Statement on LARC access during the COVID-19 pandemic

SHINE SA, April 7, 2020

SHINE SA, along with Family Planning VictoriaFamily Planning NTFamily Planning TasmaniaSexual Health and Family Planning ACTSexual Health Quarters, and True Relationships & Reproductive Health have co-signed a Position Statement on LARC access during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Extended use of and ongoing access to LARCs during the COVID-19 pandemic

Provision of contraception is essential during the COVID-19 pandemic to prevent unintended pregnancies. This is particularly important for individuals most at risk, including young people due to their high levels of fertility, people with serious health conditions, and for those who are post-abortion. Long Acting Reversible Contraceptive methods (LARCs) are more effective than shorter acting methods and increased community access and uptake is associated with lower abortion rates.

Ongoing access to LARC insertion is essential during the pandemic

Contraception is essential health care and all efforts should be made to continue the insertion of LARCs during the pandemic. To reduce the risk of infection with COVID-19, this may require different approaches to insertion such as a wearing mask during insertion of contraceptive implant or using an inserter-only approach for IUD insertion (with an assistant outside the room for emergencies).

Summary of recommendations during the pandemic

  • All efforts should be made to continue access to insertion of LARCs during the pandemic, particularly for younger people, people with serious health conditions, and post-abortion
  • The etonogestrel implant (Implanon NXT) can be extended off-label for use up to 4 years
  • The 52mg LNG IUD (Mirena) can be extended off-label for use up to 6 years
  • The 19.5mg LNG IUD (Kyleena) cannot be extended beyond 5 years
  • Standard sized T shaped banded copper IUDs can be extended off-label for use up to 12 years
  • 5-year copper IUDs (Load 375 and Copper T short) can be extended off-label for use up to 6 years
  • Additional use of condoms and/or a contraceptive pill should be discussed with users for whom the risk of an unintended pregnancy is unacceptable during extended use.

 

Multiple factors explain why middle-aged heterosexuals with new sexual partners don’t use condoms

nam/aidsmap

New strategies and approaches are needed to address the sexual health needs of middle-aged heterosexuals starting new relationships, research published in Sexually Transmitted Infections suggests.

The UK study involved men and women aged between 40 and 59 years with, or considering, new sexual partners after the break-up of a long-term relationship. In-depth interviews showed that beliefs about sexual risk were frequently based on past rather than current circumstances and that individuals often felt that existing sexual health services were geared towards the needs of younger people.

Increased usage and confidence in antiretroviral PrEP for the prevention of HIV found in UNSW study

UNSW, December 2019

The number of gay and bisexual men using PrEP to prevent HIV infection has almost doubled in the last two years, according to the latest report from the PrEPARE Project.  

The national online survey of Australian gay and bisexual men found that 43% of gay and bisexual men had used the antiretroviral drug in 2019, up from 24% in 2017. This increase aligns with falling HIV infections among gay and bisexual men in many jurisdictions.

The PrEP users surveyed reported positive experiences of using the drug, with the majority reporting reduced concern about HIV and increased sexual pleasure as a result. They also reported fewer concerns about disclosing PrEP use to others.

  • Read the 2019 survey report by the Centre for Social Research in Health.

 

Multilingual booklet in 8 languages – HIV: What you need to know

Multicultural HIV and Hepatitis Service, NSW, 2019

The new multilingual booklet, HIV. What you need to know, summarises the most current information on HIV.

It explains what it means to have HIV as well as ways to protect yourself from getting HIV and passing it on to others.

It also explains how to get tested, and how HIV is treated, including a comprehensive list of HIV health care and support services available in NSW.

Information about the Australian health care system, and HIV and legal issues are also provided.

Available in eight languages, the free booklet was developed in consultation with our communities.

  • Click on the language below to download the e-booklet
  • To order free hard copies of the  booklet please complete the order form and email to info@mhahs.org.au

 

English Arabic
Chinese Indonesian
Portuguese Spanish
Thai Vietnamese

U and Me Can Stop HIV (video)

YoungDeadlyFree, December 2019

U and me Can Stop HIV: this 8-minute animated video is designed to reach Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with the latest information on HIV. 

Animations can help explain the facts about STIs and BBVs in an engaging way that’s easy to understand, and not too confronting. YoungDeadlyFree have produced these animations for young people to access directly via social media but they’re also great tools for community education.

As well as setting out the facts about STIs and BBVs, each of these animations aims to normalise STI and BBV testing, and address the stigma and shame we can feel when talking about sex, STIs and BBVs.

  • Watch embedded video below: